ANN ARBOR—Implementing the latest government standards for foods and beverages sold at schools would substantially improve school nutrition, according to a new University of Michigan study.
The study, published online by JAMA Pediatrics, finds that from 2008 through 2012, only two percent of U.S. middle school students and less than one percent of U.S. high school students attended schools where five components of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines and snack bars were in place.
The USDA standards limit fat, sodium, sugar and calories. Final implementation will remove student access to candy, salty snacks, sugary treats, milk with higher levels of fat, savory foods with high levels of fat and calories, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Beginning with the 2012-2013 school year, phased implementation of school meal nutrition standards began. Implementation of standards for vending machines and other competitive venues began with the 2014-2015 school year.
“These results indicate that the USDA standards – if implemented fully and monitored for compliance – have the potential to change the current U.S. school nutritional environment significantly,” says Yvonne M. Terry-McElrath, a researcher at the U-M Institute for Social Research (ISR) and first author of the study.
For the study, McElrath and co-authors Patrick O’Malley and Lloyd Johnston analyzed five years of nationally representative data from middle and high school students and their school administrators to examine what percentage of U.S. secondary school students attended schools with specific USDA components, whether the components were associated with student overweight-obesity, and whether there were differences in associations based on a variety of social and demographic characteristics.
The analytic sample included 22,716 eighth-grade students in 313 schools and 30,596 10th– and 12th-grade students in 511 schools.
The data were collected as part of two ISR studies: The Monitoring the Future study, supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Youth, Education and Society study, part of a larger research initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, titled “Bridging the Gap: Research Informing Policy and Practice for Healthy Youth Behavior.”
The authors analyzed five school nutrition components directly called for by the USDA standards. These included no sugar-sweetened beverages, no whole/2 percent milk, no candy or regular-fat snacks, and no french fries. The fifth component — encouraged, but not required by the USDA standards — is that fruits or vegetables be available wherever food was sold.
The study findings show that 21.1 percent of middle schoolers and 30.1 percent of high schoolers attended schools without any of the components during the 2007-2008 through 2011-2012 school years. Only 1.8 percent and 0.3 percent of middle and high school students attended schools with all five of the nutritional components. The nutritional component most often present in schools was the absence of french fries (57.7 percent of middle school and 44.9 percent of high school students attended schools without french fries).
An average of 26.4 percent of middle school students and 27.1 percent of high school students were classified as overweight/obese. The researchers found no significant associations between the USDA standard components and self-reported overweight/obesity among middle school students overall. However, among high school students, lower odds of overweight/obesity were associated with having fruits or vegetables available wherever food was sold, the absence of higher-fat milk and having three or more USDA nutritional standard components. For Hispanic middle school students and nonwhite high school students, there was an association between the absence of sugar-sweetened beverages and lower overweight/obesity.
The USDA standards were developed and implemented in response to rising overweight-obesity among American children, but some experts oppose their implementation, according to background information in the study.
For a copy of the full study, visit http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.2048.
By Diane Swanbrow