Rensis Likert and Daniel Katz started this program, originally known as the Human Relations Program, in order to better understand what characteristics of leadership and structure would make organizations more effective. A companion effort, the Social Behavior and Health Program, concentrated on the effects of organizational characteristics on individual outcomes including well-being, quality of life, and health. Early researchers included Katz, Floyd Mann, Robert Kahn, Nancy Morse Samelson, Gerald Gurin, Donald Pelz, Arnold Tannenbaum, and Stanley Seashore.

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