James Morgan launched this early ISR panel study, intended to track the same individuals over time. The study now has followed American families for more than 40 years, looking at employment, retirement, income, expenditures, wealth, pensions, health, insurance, marriage and childbearing, mental health, and philanthropy. Having started with 5,000 families, ISR by 2008 was interviewing some 8,000 families, consisting of more than 65,000 members across four generations. Among its accomplishments, the study has led to key inter-generational analyses and a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of poverty.

Watch video: America’s changing families

Bob Zajonc published his famous set of experimental studies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology showing that people tend to prefer things merely because they have been exposed to them, even if they are unaware of that exposure.

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